Skip to main content

15 global challenges that cannot be addressed by any government acting alone

  The 15 Global Challenges  from t he Millennium Project, a global participatory think tank. 1. How can sustainable development be achieved for all while addressing global climate change? 2. How can everyone have sufficient clean water without conflict? 3. How can population growth and resources be brought into balance? 4. How can genuine democracy emerge from authoritarian regimes? 5. How can decisionmaking be enhanced by integrating improved global foresight during unprecedented accelerating change? 6. How can the global convergence of information and communications technologies work for everyone? 7. How can ethical market economies be encouraged to help reduce the gap between rich and poor? 8. How can the threat of new and reemerging diseases and immune micro-organisms be reduced? 9. How can education make humanity more intelligent, knowledgeable, and wise enough to address its global challenges? 10. How can shared values and new security strategies reduce ethnic conflicts, terroris

Earliest Children’s books in England

Children’s books existed even before the printing press had been invented, they are “the Golden Key that opens the Enchanted Door.”

There were many books written for children well before Caxton set up his first printing-press. Generally they were written and copied by the monks in their monastery cells and they combined the teaching of reading with religious instruction. The first children’s book ever printed in UK was probably “The Primer in English Most Necessary for the Education of Children,” published about 1537. After reading came writing, and the first copy-book in England was printed about the year 1571. Later there were “Writing Sheets” or “School Pieces” and it is really from these School pieces of the late eighteenth century that our modern Christmas cards developed.

Story books and nursery rhymes appeared later. Probably “Old Mother Hubbard” was the first of the nursery rhymes, though the earliest printed edition still in existence was only published about the same time. History books had also been published and some publishers were quite anxious to avoid boring their young readers: “Choice Scraps, Historical and Biographical, Consisting of Pleasing Stories and Diverting anecdotes, Most of them short to Prevent Their Being Tiresome, Comprehending Much Useful Information and Innocent Amusement for Young Minds” was published about 1790.

More exciting books and adventure stories for young readers could also be bought. One of the earliest was the “The Renowned History of Guy, Earl of Warwick, and containing his Noble Exploits and Victories,” first published about 1700 and still being printed a century later. “The History of robin Hood,” which, with its many imitations, must be counted among the best-sellers of all time, appeared in different volumes before a collection of the stories was published.

The earliest fairy tales came from the French, written by an author’s son, Pierre Perrault, and at least six of these stories are still popular: “The Sleeping Beauty,” “Red riding Hood,” “Puss in Boots,” “Cinderella” and “Blue Beard.” These first appeared in France in 1697 and in due course English editions were published. “The Arabian Nights” also first saw the light of day in France and the stories of “Aladdin,” “Sinbad the Sailor” and “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves” were quite well-known to English children by the beginning of the nineteenth century.

Then there are books such as “The Wind in the Willows” by Kenneth Grahame which tells the story of Toad of Toad Hall, the humble-minded Mole and the practical Water Rat. This has often been described as a delightful book for a family of all ages.

There are many books which were not originally written with the idea appealing specially to younger readers, but have since come to be regarded in that class. “Robinson Crusoe “is an example. On the other hand there are books such as Stevenson’s “Treasure Island” and Kidnapped” which first appeared as boys’ serials but became famous when published in book form and grown-up readers hailed them as masterpieces.

Then there is Lewis Carroll’s “Alice in Wonderland” told to three young girls on river picnics and only written in manuscript with amusing but amateurish drawings later on to give as a present to one of the girls because she had asked for it. That manuscript was sold seventy years later for £15,000 and grown-ups have enjoyed “Alice” just as much as children. Yet of no book could it be more truly said that it was “specially written for children.” When the book was eventually published, the famous artist, Sir John Tenniel, illustrated it. Since 1865 when it first appeared many other artists have illustrated the large number of different editions which have been published. Both “Alice in Wonderland” and “Through the Looking Glass, “and another story of Alice, have been translated into many languages around the world.


Popular posts from this blog


Heraldry probably began with the knights in armour. When wearing a helmet in battle or in tournaments a knight could not be recognised; so he used symbols to decorate his shield and surcoat. The surcoat was the loose garment worn over the armour to protect it from rain or hot sun and actually was the "coat-of-arms"; it was decorated on the front and back with the same device as on the shield. The correct expression for entire design is an achievement . An achievement consists of the shield, helmet, rest, wreath, mantling and motto. These are the main parts. To them can be added supporters and a compartment. In the centre is the most important part, the shield . The surface of the shield is called the field  and on it the colourful charges are placed. The shield is called the arms or coat-of-arms  and can be drawn in any shape - in an upright position or slanting, which is the position it would fall into if hung on a peg. In Heraldry it slants to dexter. The helmet denot

You can find your Wireless Network Key on Virgin Media Wireless Router

We have a new netbook computer, and don't know where to find network key, which is needed to setup wireless connection. A network key may also be called WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) key or WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) key. A wireless network key is a security feature that prevents unauthorized users from accessing a wireless network. An unprotected network is an unlocked virtual door, anybody within range can piggyback on the network undetected. I use Virgin media broadband with a Virgin media wireless router, this router has a WPA key taped on the router, that WPA key is an English word consisting of 10 letters. To tape network key on the router is a good idea, because we may never lose or forget a wireless network key as long as we possess the router.

The Meaning of Derby City Council Logo

Derby City Logo The logo of Derby City Council looks quite abstract and modern. I wonder what's the meaning of it? The lower-left part of the logo looks like a snail (or the initial letter D in Derby?), the upper-right part seems a river, (Derwent river?) these two parts are connected by a straight line at the bottom. I did some searches on the web trying to find out the true meaning of Derby City Council logo, but without success. So, I wrote to tourist information, and got the answer from Michael: The Logo is a representation of two of Derby's oldest emblems, one being a ram the other a buck (deer). Obviously the logo is a modern interpretation of these two figures so it is not obvious unless you know what to look for. Most people do seem to agree with you that it looks like a snail however. Ram! the curly horn of ram looks like a snail indeed. The ram and the deer are from coat of arms of City of Derby, In this coats of arms, we can see the deers both in shield (arm