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Constituencies, wards and local councils

Constituencies (a.k.a. parliamentary constituencies): each electing one Member of Parliament (MP) every 5 years to the House of Commons (Parliament). There are 650 constituencies in the UK.Wards (a.k.a. electoral divisions or electoral wards) is the primary unit of English electoral geography for borough and district councils, county councils or city councils. Each ward elects either one or two councillors to be members of the local council. There were 9,456 electoral wards/divisions in the UK and each ward has an average electorate of about 5,500 people, but ward population can vary substantially.Local council is made up of a number of Councillors (Cllr) who meet regularly to make decisions about the direction of the council and the work it does for the community. As elected bodies local councils are responsible to their local community. Attending a council meeting is the best way to find out what they do and how they make decisions. Members of public can attend public council meetin…

Guide to Life in the UK

General politeness and good manners
• British people are generally quiet, polite and reserved in manner.
• Always use ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ when asking for something.
• Shaking hands is the universal greeting, especially in work or formal situations.

Queuing and seating etiquette
• Always join the back of a queue and await your turn.
• If you are on a bus or a train, it’s commonly seen as polite for men to give up their seats to women or older people.

Going out
• Pubs and bars open at least 11am to 11pm, some open 24 hours
• Many coffee shops are also open late
• Pubs and bars sell non-alcoholic drinks and often food as well

• Smoking banned in virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces, including buses, trains, taxis, pubs,

cinemas, nightclubs and restaurants.
• Always check if smoking is permitted, penalty fines can be very expensive.

Buying food and drink
• Supermarkets are open long hours, and sell a wide variety of foods and other products.
• Fresh fruit and vegetables may be cheaper when bought from a specialist grocer.
• ‘Off-licences’ specialise in selling alcohol, as well as tobacco and soft drinks.
• Many specialist world food shops can be found in the Normanton area of Derby. This area also has a lot of Asian restaurants, takeaways and kebab shops etc.

Buying clothes
• All kinds of clothing available in city shops, at a wide range of prices. Many supermarkets now sell particularly cheap clothing.

Enjoying Derby
• Visit the Tourist Information Centre in the city marketplace for information about things to do and see.

Television and radio
• Five main free TV channels, many more available through digital or satellite TV.
• Wide variety of radio stations available catering to all tastes.

TV licence
• If you have a TV, then it’s likely that you’ll need a licence. Make sure you find out, as the fine for being caught without one can be very expensive.

Postal services
• Postage stamps are available from Post Offices and many other shops.
• If you want to send a parcel you need to visit a Post Office to have it weighed.

Telephone services
• Public pay phones are common in all towns and cities.
• Home telephone packages available from many different suppliers.
• Mobile phones are widely available, as are the different packages.

• British electricity supply is 240 volts or 50 hertz, so you may need an adaptor.

• Coins up to and including £1, notes above this amount.
• Currency exchange available at all banks and Post Offices.

Bicycles, Cars, Scooters and Motorcycles
• Always ride or drive carefully, and make sure you read and obey the UK Highway Code.
• Make sure your driving licence is valid.
• Keep your bicycle or vehicle well maintained, and fully taxed and insured.
• On bicycles and motorbikes, always wear a helmet and protective clothing.
• Never ride or drive any bicycle or vehicle when under the influence of alcohol.

Pedestrian Road Safety
• Cross roads at proper places, such as traffic lights, or zebra and pelican crossings.
• Green light means you can cross, do not cross if light is flashing amber or red.
• Always check that traffic has stopped before you begin to cross.

Buses and taxis
• Buy bus tickets from the driver when you board.
• Only use proper licensed taxi services.

Personal safety
• Avoid walking alone at night, especially in unlit areas like parks.
• Don’t accept drinks from strangers, or leave your drink unattended.
• Don’t display your valuables in public.
• Make sure your home and property are secure.

Sexual relationships
• Legal age of consent is 16 for both heterosexuals and homosexuals.
• Be aware of contraception and how to avoid STDs before starting a relationship.

• Treat others with the respect and tolerance you’d expect yourself.
• Report any incidents you suspect to be racially-motivated.

• It is illegal to possess, sell or supply drugs such as marijuana, LSD, heroin, opium, cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamine sulphate in the UK. Penalties can be very severe, including large fines and prison sentences.
• Never attempt to bring any kind of illegal drug or similar substance into the UK from abroad. Drug trafficking can lead to very long prison sentences.

Reporting Crimes in Progress, Accidents or Fires
• Emergency services include Police, Fire Brigade and Ambulance
• Emergency services number is 999 – but only use it in a genuine emergency.

The Police
• To report a crime after it has occurred visit a police station or dial 0845 123 33 33.
• The Police are there to help and protect you, don’t be afraid to approach them.
• If you are arrested for any reason, stay calm, ask why you are being arrested and ask to be allowed to contact a lawyer, a responsible friend. Ask to be made aware of your rights. Do not resist arrest, do not try to run away, do not try to bribe a Police Officer.


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Heraldry probably began with the knights in armour. When wearing a helmet in battle or in tournaments a knight could not be recognised; so he used symbols to decorate his shield and surcoat. The surcoat was the loose garment worn over the armour to protect it from rain or hot sun and actually was the "coat-of-arms"; it was decorated on the front and back with the same device as on the shield.
The correct expression for entire design is an achievement. An achievement consists of the shield, helmet, rest, wreath, mantling and motto. These are the main parts. To them can be added supporters and a compartment.

In the centre is the most important part, the shield. The surface of the shield is called the field and on it the colourful charges are placed. The shield is called the arms or coat-of-arms and can be drawn in any shape - in an upright position or slanting, which is the position it would fall into if hung on a peg. In Heraldry it slants to dexter.

The helmet denotes the ran…

Is Aladdin a Chinese?

Aladdin is an Arabic name, but he lived in China.  Is he a Chinese?
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The Meaning of Derby City Council Logo

The logo of Derby City Council looks quite abstract and modern. I wonder what's the meaning of it? The lower-left part of the logo looks like a snail (or the initial letter D in Derby?), the upper-right part seems a river, (Derwent river?) these two parts are connected by a straight line at the bottom.

I did some searches on the web trying to find out the true meaning of Derby City Council logo, but without success. So, I wrote to tourist information, and got the answer from Michael:
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