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15 global challenges that cannot be addressed by any government acting alone

  The 15 Global Challenges  from t he Millennium Project, a global participatory think tank. 1. How can sustainable development be achieved for all while addressing global climate change? 2. How can everyone have sufficient clean water without conflict? 3. How can population growth and resources be brought into balance? 4. How can genuine democracy emerge from authoritarian regimes? 5. How can decisionmaking be enhanced by integrating improved global foresight during unprecedented accelerating change? 6. How can the global convergence of information and communications technologies work for everyone? 7. How can ethical market economies be encouraged to help reduce the gap between rich and poor? 8. How can the threat of new and reemerging diseases and immune micro-organisms be reduced? 9. How can education make humanity more intelligent, knowledgeable, and wise enough to address its global challenges? 10. How can shared values and new security strategies reduce ethnic conflicts, terroris


A foal can stand up on his long wobbly legs only a few hours since he was born. In a day or two, he may feel brave enough to meet the rest of the foals and join in the game they are playing, but he when he is about four years old, he can be trained to take a rider on his back.

Ponies come in all kinds of colours, each with its own name:

Bay - Brown coat with a black mane and tail
Black - Black coat and a black mane and tail
Chestnut - Red-brown colour all over
Polomino - Golden coat with a pale mane tail
Dun - Pale brown coat with a black mane tail
Piebald - Large patches of black and white
Grey - White or grey coat. A dark grey coat with light grey rings is called dapple grey
Skewbald - Large patches of brown and white

All horeses are measured in 'hands', which are units of 4 inches (10 centimeres). Ponies measure 14 hands and 2 inches or less.

The parts of a pony are called 'points'. They each have a different name.

cannon bone

Horses and ponies of the world:
  • Sable Island pony
  • Mustang
  • Morgan
  • Appaloosa
  • Quarter horse
  • Criollo
  • Falabella miniature horse
  • Icelandic, Iceland
  • Connemara pony, Ireland
  • Shetland pony, Scotland
  • Welsh mountain pony, Wales
  • Exmoor pony, England
  • Shire, England
  • Thoroughbred, England
  • Camargue, France
  • Andalusion, Spain
  • Hanoverian, Germany
  • Haflinger pony, Austria
  • Lipizzaner, Austria
  • Arab, Saudi Arabia
  • Caspian pony, Iran
  • Przewalski's horse, Mongolia
  • Chinese guoxia, China
  • Chinese pony, China
  • Shan pony, Burmese
  • Cheju horse, south Korea
  • Tibetan pony, Tibet
  • Waler pony
The Tack Room
Tack is the gear a pony wears for riding, and it is kept in the tack room. Tack must be cleaned after every ride so it is kept supple and safe to use.

The briddle is a set of leather straps, and is used to control the pony when he is being ridden. Western (US) bridles have no noseband and are often beautifully decorated. Only a very light touch on the reins is needed.
  • Brownband (velvet browband)
  • Headpiece
  • Cheekpiece
  • Noseband (cavesson nose band, flash noseband)
  • Throatlash
  • Rein(rubber-covered reins, plaited reins)
The bit lies over the pony's tongue and is connected to the reins and cheekpieces.
Snaffle has a ring at each side and can be jointed or straight.
  • Jointed eggbutt snaffle
  • Straight-bar rubber snaffle
Pelham is for livelier ponies.
  • Jointed Pelham
  • A saddle is fastened around the pony's tummy by a thick strap called the girth.
Riding clothes:
  • For girl: crash helmet, sweatshirt, Jodhpurs, Jodhpur boots
  • Fro boy: crash helmet, shirt, Jeans, leather chaps, riding boots

The Grooming kit
  • Hoof pick - The hooves should be picked out twice a day. Run your hand down the leg then give the fetlock a tug to lift his foot. Working from heel to toe, remove any mud or beddings.
  • Dandy brush - Gooming keeps the coat glossy and the ski clean. Remove any surface dirt with the dandy brush before working over the coat with the body brush.
  • Rubber curry comb - for very muddy or hairy ponies
  • Body brush - for cleaning the coat
  • Sponge - gives the eyes, nose and dock a refreshing wash
  • Sweatscraper - wipes off extra water after a bath.
A pony has four paces - walk, trot, canter and gallop.

(My Best Book of Ponies by Jacki Budd, published by Kingfisher, 1999)


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