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Constituencies, wards and local councils

Constituencies (a.k.a. parliamentary constituencies): each electing one Member of Parliament (MP) every 5 years to the House of Commons (Parliament). There are 650 constituencies in the UK.Wards (a.k.a. electoral divisions or electoral wards) is the primary unit of English electoral geography for borough and district councils, county councils or city councils. Each ward elects either one or two councillors to be members of the local council. There were 9,456 electoral wards/divisions in the UK and each ward has an average electorate of about 5,500 people, but ward population can vary substantially.Local council is made up of a number of Councillors (Cllr) who meet regularly to make decisions about the direction of the council and the work it does for the community. As elected bodies local councils are responsible to their local community. Attending a council meeting is the best way to find out what they do and how they make decisions. Members of public can attend public council meetin…


A foal can stand up on his long wobbly legs only a few hours since he was born. In a day or two, he may feel brave enough to meet the rest of the foals and join in the game they are playing, but he when he is about four years old, he can be trained to take a rider on his back.

Ponies come in all kinds of colours, each with its own name:

Bay - Brown coat with a black mane and tail
Black - Black coat and a black mane and tail
Chestnut - Red-brown colour all over
Polomino - Golden coat with a pale mane tail
Dun - Pale brown coat with a black mane tail
Piebald - Large patches of black and white
Grey - White or grey coat. A dark grey coat with light grey rings is called dapple grey
Skewbald - Large patches of brown and white

All horeses are measured in 'hands', which are units of 4 inches (10 centimeres). Ponies measure 14 hands and 2 inches or less.

The parts of a pony are called 'points'. They each have a different name.

cannon bone

Horses and ponies of the world:
  • Sable Island pony
  • Mustang
  • Morgan
  • Appaloosa
  • Quarter horse
  • Criollo
  • Falabella miniature horse
  • Icelandic, Iceland
  • Connemara pony, Ireland
  • Shetland pony, Scotland
  • Welsh mountain pony, Wales
  • Exmoor pony, England
  • Shire, England
  • Thoroughbred, England
  • Camargue, France
  • Andalusion, Spain
  • Hanoverian, Germany
  • Haflinger pony, Austria
  • Lipizzaner, Austria
  • Arab, Saudi Arabia
  • Caspian pony, Iran
  • Przewalski's horse, Mongolia
  • Chinese guoxia, China
  • Chinese pony, China
  • Shan pony, Burmese
  • Cheju horse, south Korea
  • Tibetan pony, Tibet
  • Waler pony
The Tack Room
Tack is the gear a pony wears for riding, and it is kept in the tack room. Tack must be cleaned after every ride so it is kept supple and safe to use.

The briddle is a set of leather straps, and is used to control the pony when he is being ridden. Western (US) bridles have no noseband and are often beautifully decorated. Only a very light touch on the reins is needed.
  • Brownband (velvet browband)
  • Headpiece
  • Cheekpiece
  • Noseband (cavesson nose band, flash noseband)
  • Throatlash
  • Rein(rubber-covered reins, plaited reins)
The bit lies over the pony's tongue and is connected to the reins and cheekpieces.
Snaffle has a ring at each side and can be jointed or straight.
  • Jointed eggbutt snaffle
  • Straight-bar rubber snaffle
Pelham is for livelier ponies.
  • Jointed Pelham
  • A saddle is fastened around the pony's tummy by a thick strap called the girth.
Riding clothes:
  • For girl: crash helmet, sweatshirt, Jodhpurs, Jodhpur boots
  • Fro boy: crash helmet, shirt, Jeans, leather chaps, riding boots

The Grooming kit
  • Hoof pick - The hooves should be picked out twice a day. Run your hand down the leg then give the fetlock a tug to lift his foot. Working from heel to toe, remove any mud or beddings.
  • Dandy brush - Gooming keeps the coat glossy and the ski clean. Remove any surface dirt with the dandy brush before working over the coat with the body brush.
  • Rubber curry comb - for very muddy or hairy ponies
  • Body brush - for cleaning the coat
  • Sponge - gives the eyes, nose and dock a refreshing wash
  • Sweatscraper - wipes off extra water after a bath.
A pony has four paces - walk, trot, canter and gallop.

(My Best Book of Ponies by Jacki Budd, published by Kingfisher, 1999)


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